Human Relations Theory:

Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Experiment:

  1. Two key aspects of human relationships approach are employee motivation and leadership style.
  2. The major assumptions of the human relations approach include the following ideas:
    • Employees are motivated by social and psychological needs and by economic incentives.
    • These   needs, including but not limited to recognition, belongingness and security, are more important in determining worker morale and productivity than the physical conditions of the work environment.
    • An individual’s perceptions, beliefs, motivations, cognition, responses to frustration, values and similar factors may affect behavior in the work setting.
    • People in all types of organizations tend to form informal social organizations that work along with the formal organization and can help or hinder management.           
    • Informal social groups within the workplace create and enforce their own norms and codes of behavior.
    • Team effort, conflict between groups, group loyalty, communication patterns, and emergent leadership are important concepts for determining individual and group behavior.   
    • Employees have higher morale and work harder under supportive management which lead to increased productivity.  
    • Communication, power, influence, authority, motivation, and manipulation are all important relationships within an organization. In this approach, field study methods as well as laboratory experiments were used to study the work environment and to understand the employee behavior in the workplace.         
Elton Mayo’s Human Relations Approach

Behavioral Science Approach:

Systems approach:

  1. According to barnard, an organization can operate and survive only when both the goals of organization and individuals working for it are kept in equilibrium.
  2. It means that, managers must have both human as well as technical skills that are required for goal achievement.
  3. As per system approach, the organisation is a system and various departments within an organisation are its subsystems.
  4. All the departments should function as a union so that the objectives of the organisation can be achieved.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:

McGregor’s theory
                                                Theory X                                                                                    Theory Y
WORKER IS LAZY AND DISLIKES WORK                                                                                   PEOPLE ARE NOT LAZY BY NATURE BUT THE TREATMENT IN ORGANIZATION MAKES THEM SO

Theory X Assumptions:

  1. The average human being has inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if it is possible.
  2. Because of his characteristic of dislike of work, most people must be compelled, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them put forth adequate effort towards the attainment of the objectives.
  3. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all.

Theory Y Assumptions:

  1. The average human being does not have inherent dislike for work.        
  2. People will exercise self direction and self control in the service, or pursuit of objectives to which they are committed.
  3. Commitment to objectives is a function of the reward associated with their achievement.       
  4. The average human being learns under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.          
  5. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely not narrowly distributed in population.
  6. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human beings are only partially utilized.
  1. The major contributions made by the behavioural scientists can be summarised as under
    1. People are not work shirkers. They want to achieve the objectives if they are involved in the establishment of objectives. Thus, work is a mode of motivation and satisfaction to employees.
    2. The fundamental task of a manager should be to bring out the hidden human potential and use it in the service of the organisation.
    3. The subordinates should be encouraged to participate in the significant matters of the organisation and should be provided self-direction by the manager.
    4. A healthy and safe work environment should be created in which all the subordinates can make their full contribution according to their capabilities.
    5. Employees’ satisfaction at work place will improve the side-effects of subordinates and will make full use of their capabilities.
    6. There can be increase in operational efficiency through enlargement of influence of subordinates, their self-direction and self-monitoring.
Theories of educational Administration

Scientific Management Theory:

  1. In taylor’s view, if a task is scientifically managed it will increase the productivity by increasing efficiency and wages of workers.
  2. The main features of this theory are:
    1. It finds out best method for performing each job.
    2. It selects employees by using scientific selection procedure.
    3. It believes in having close relationship with management and employees.
    4. It uses division of labour.
    5. It tries to produce maximum output by fixing performance standards for each job and by having a differential piece rate system for each job for payment of wages.
  3. Taylor gave four principles for scientific management:
    1. Scientific Job Analysis:
      1. Job should be analyzed through observation, data gathering, careful measurement and management. Such job analysis will replace the old rule-of-thumb method.
    2. Selection of Personnel:
      1. Once the job is analyzed, the next step is to scientifically select, train, teach and produce workers. Previously, workers chose their own work and train themselves.
    3. Management Cooperation
      1. Managers should cooperate with workers to ensure that all work being done should be in line with the principles of Science i.e. scientific method.
    4. Functional Supervising
      1. Managers assume planning, organizing, and decision-making activities, whereas workers perform their jobs. In the past, almost all work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrust on workers.
    5. Performance Standards
      1. Taylor introduced time and motion studies to fix performance standards. For bringing uniformity of work, he fixed performance standards for time cost and quality of work. As a result, the efficiency of workers could be compared.
    6. Differential Piece Rate System:
      1. Under differential piece rate system, a standard output was first fixed. Taylor studied that workers did as little work as possible. He felt that under existing wage system, an efficient worker gained nothing extra. Then two wage rates were fixed. These are
        1. Low wage rate was fixed for those workers who did not produce the standard output.
        2. Higher wage rate was fixed for those workers who produced standard output or more than the standard output.

Administrative Management Theory:

  1. Scientific management focuses on jobs of individual workers, whereas administrative management theory concentrates on the administration of entire organization.
  2. This theory is related to the issues of structure and management of organization
  1. According to Henry Fayol, the management is a type of activity which is performed
    in the same manner in all business as well as non-business organisations.
  2. He has given five functions of management viz. planning, organising, coordinating, commanding and controlling and fourteen principles of management.
  3. These principles emphasize chain of command, allocation of authority, order, efficiency, equity and stability.
  4. These principles have been discussed as under
Fayol – Father of modern management

Division of Work:

  1. According to this principle, the whole work of an organisation is
    divided into small tasks and each such task is assigned to one specialist who is well
  2. Thus, work can be performed more effectively when it is divided into different tasks and each such task is performed by one specialist.

Authority and Responsibility:

  1. According to Henry Fayol, there must be a balance between authority and responsibility. For example, if an employee has been given a responsibility to do a job then he must be provided with enough authority to perform his/her job efficiently and vice-versa.


Discipline means following the rules and regulations of the organisation and
agreement of employment as these are necessary for the functioning of an organisation.
As per this principle, all the employees working in an organisation should function as a
unified team and should follow organisational discipline

Unity of Command:

According to this principle, an employee should receive orders from one superior only and to whom he/she should be answerable.

Unity of Direction:

The principle of unity of direction states that those activities which have a common objective should be directed through one head and one plan.

Priority to General Interest over Individual Interest:

  1. The common objectives of the organisation should overtake the individual objectives of the employees.

Fair Remuneration to Employees:

According to this principle, the wages and salaries given to both the employer and the employees should be fair and equitable and should also guarantee a reasonable standard of living.


1. The process of concentration of decision-making power with one person is known as Centralisation.

According to this principle, there is a need to bring decentralisation through involvement of subordinates in decision-making but the final authority to take decision should rest with the top management as per centralisation.

Scalar Chain:

According to this principle, there should be a clear line of authority from top to
bottom which will link superiors and subordinates at all levels


In an organisation, there should be an appropriate place for everything and everyone and
everything and everyone should be at the right place.


According to this principle, managers should be fair and kind towards their workers and they should treat all workers equally.

Stability of Tenure of Personnel:

As per this principle, employees should have stability
of tenure and they should be given enough time to show their performance and talent.
Also, repeated transfers and rotations should be minimised. If after settlement in the job,
an employee receives any transfer order, it will bring wastage of resources and he/she
will not be able to give his/her best to the organisation.


According to this principle, employees at every level should be given some
freedom so that they may come forward and use their abilities and skills to achieve the
expected goals

Esprit de Corps:

It refers to team spirit which means harmony in work group and mutual
understanding among employees. It will lead to creation of an atmosphere of mutual trust
and understanding in an organisation. It also focuses on the popular saying viz. ‘Union is

Bureaucratic Management:

  1. Max Weber also recognized the importance of these factors.
  2. According to him, in order to remove irregularities in management firm and strict rules should be made because irregularities lead to incompetence. He was of the view that there should be a well defined formal system in an organisation in order to bring about success and efficiency.
  3. Besides, he was also of the belief that success and efficiency in an organisation can be achieved only through bureaucracy.

Luther Gulick another classical theorist coined the term POSDCORB that refers to seven functions of management. These functions are planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting.

Process of administration:

  1. Educational administration is regarded as total processes inclusive of all
    responsibilities and functions necessary for running the school. It provides and
    manages various elements of the teaching-learning situation such as the learners, the
    teachers, the curriculum and the socio-physical environment.

So, administration is concerned with managing resources, allocating tasks, making
decisions and solving problems. The function is to create favorable conditions for the
educational process and their maintenance at an effective level.

  • Planning: Execution not only points out what resources are needed but also the sources of procurement These resources may include material resources like the building, furniture, library, laboratories, non-material resources like personnel, and other stakeholders like students and parents and abstract resources like vision, mission statement, ideology and values.
  • Organizing: it establishes the formal structure through which work divisions are arranged and coordinated to implement the plan. The essential elements of the organization includes people and their functioning; what they do and how they work together.
  • Staffing: it involves the function of selecting and training the staff, maintaining the favorable and congenial conditions for the enhancement of professional efficiency of staff.
  • Directing: it includes continuous task of making, communicating and implementing decisions.
    • Direction involves getting the work done through instructions and orders. There should be proper supervision, motivation and communication on the part of the administrator for getting the work done. Directing involves exercising leadership motivating people, determining accountability and developing guidelines for action.
  • Coordinating: it includes all efforts that are needed to bind together the organization in order to achieve a common goal.
  • Reporting: it includes verification of progress through records, research and inspection. It insures that things happen according to the planning. It indicates how far the goals have been achieved and to what extent there is deviation from the plans.
  • Budgeting: it involves all the activities that accompany budgeting, including fiscal planning, accounting and control.
Functions of educational management

General Functions and Processes of Educational Administration include resource and program, planning
and policy making, provision and maintenance of funds and facilities, obtaining and development of personnel improvement of instructional programs, student personnel services, and maintenance of effective interrelationships with the community and external agencies.

Changing concepts of Educational Administration:

  1. Three interrelated concepts-that forms the development of the next era of the profession-that is the post-behavioral science era are
    1. school improvement,
    2. democratic community and
    3. social justice

School Improvement: Accountability for school improvement is a central theme of state policies. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 sets demanding accountability standards for schools, school districts, and states, including new state testing requirements designed to improve education. For bringing school improvement, purpose must be clarified i.e. the school district and the administrators and teachers who work in it are accountable for student learning. It means that what teachers teach and students learn is a matter of public inspection and subject to direct measurement.

Democratic Community: which is based on the open flow of ideas that enables people to be as fully informed as possible. It involves the use of critical reflection and analysis to evaluate ideas, problems, and policies. It places responsibility on individuals to participate in open inquiry, collective choices and actions in the interest of the common good.

Social Justice: It is the core of democracy in which every citizen is treated equally in social, economic, political, and educational areas. Excellence and equity are related to social justice.

Factors influencing Educational Administration:

Indian Constitution laid down that in the eyes of law everyone should have an equal status, everyone should have liberty of thought, expression, and to practice his own faith and belief, and the dignity of each individual should be assured.

Before 1976, Education as a whole was a State Subject and the Central Government used to play only an advisory role. The Forty-Second Amendment, in 1976 education was put on the Concurrent list. The implication of making education a concurrent subject is that both the center and the states can legislate on any aspect of education from primary to University level. Now, education comes under Concurrent List and for this both the Central and State Governments become meaningful partners in it.

Conceptual Framework for Policy Formulation:

  1. A policy change as a response to a problem or set of problems in the sector must start with an analysis of the existing situation of the educational sector.
  2. In addition to the analysis of the sector itself, policy analysis should consider a number of aspects of the social context, including political, economic, demographic, cultural and social issues which are likely to affect the decision making and even implementation processes of the education sector.
  3. While formulating policy some of the below mentioned contexts are given its due consideration.

Political Context:

  1. An analysis of the political environment is necessary for an understanding of the national decision making process.
  2. The comparative value of education and the role that education must play in the socio-political process in a democratic country like India where various political parties have been coming in power and have been defining educational goals and priorities as per their political ideology.
  3. They have been implementing various programmes to achieve the target set in their educational policies.
  4. The rationale for decentralization rests on the political (actually, democratic) imperative that all those whose interests are affected by decisions ought to take part in the decision-making process.
  5. As far as the education of children is concerned, this means an important task for parents, community representatives, teachers and others in the decision of various processes that comprise the education of children the articulation of its aims, decisions related to knowledge and curriculum, the teaching learning process and so on.
  6. Local institutions of self- government such as the Panchayats, are seen as being representative of the collective voice of the people.

Economic Context:

Before formulating the educational policy, an assessment of financial and human resources is essential. It is important to estimate the financial resources of the country in order to assess what the economy requires from the education sector and what the education sector expects to face from the rest of the economy, particularly in terms of general infrastructure and financial resources.

The economic growth rate is important not only for estimating the likely need for certain kinds of skills but also for estimating the future amount of slumped resources.

Social Demand approach is to forecast future demands for seats keeping in mind social and educational trends as well as demographic changes. The underlying assumption in this approach is that expansion of education is beneficial to the economy and thus, additional expenditure on education would not create a heavy  burden, which would be unbearable.

This approach is more prevalent in those societies which favour traditional cultural values, where decisions are taken on the basis of public opinions (in a fragile polity and sometimes in a democracy) and in societies where the social environment is generally pessimistic in nature.

Rate of returns approach treats education as an investment in human capital and uses rate of returns as a criterion in allocation of financial resources. The approach implies that if the rate of return is low, expenditure on education should be curtailed.

Social scenario:

Educational policy analysis starts with an identification and understanding of the major sectorial issues relevant to the country. These issues may be explored under different categories like:

  • Access to educational opportunities and how to further improve it
  • Equity in the distribution of educational services
  • Structure of the education system
  • Internal efficiency like dropout rates, repetition rate, promotion rate, etc.
  • External efficiency
  • Institutional arrangements for the management of the sector.

A historical and evolutionary perspective on the dynamics of policies across time allows the educational planners and policy makers a better understanding of why a particular policy is being advocated at that moment. By studying the past, one also estimates the time required to achieve the goals set by the policy.

Democratic value:

Social Justice approach emphasizes justice to the disadvantaged sections of society and is based on Article 45 of the Indian Constitution. This approach is aimed at making special provisions for the socially, economically and educationally disadvantaged communities for a longer duration. This includes opening Ashram schools for tribal areas, special concessions and scholarships, incentives and relaxation.

  1. Democratic management of educational institutions has expected to increase equal access (equality) in education through creating inclusive setup which would cater to the local needs.
  2. All the responsibilities of school management have been transferred to the local bodies which can better understand local priorities, problems and their solutions.
  3. Decentralisation has also been termed as ‘democratic decentralisation’ as a part and parcel of democratic system. In other words, it is an essential component of democratic system.
  4. Thus, the basic tenets of democracy are equality, liberty, fraternity and justice.
  5. Owing to this nature of the system, it (democracy) needs decentralisation in all its aspects i.e. social, political and economical.
  6. Principle of democratic philosophy ensures that a democratic philosophy of the head will make the institution function smoothly and effective.