Concepts and approaches:

  1. According to Fayol, all managers perform 5 basic functions of management by identifying 14 principles of management
    1. Planning
    2. Organizing
    3. Commanding
    4. Coordination
    5. Controlling
  2. The right to give orders and power to excel obedience by Henry fayol‘s modern management theory.
  3. Scalar principle of organizational theory refers to Line of authority.
  4. The violation of the following undermines authority, jeopardize discipline, disturbs order and thereafter stability of an organisation
    1. Unity of command
  5. The rationale underlying “Span of Control”
    1. One can make a small group of people to work effectively
  6. The management principle “Span of control” propounded by Fayol states that One can make  4-6 people work effectively  under him/her.
  7. The rational policy model is designed to maximize ‘net value achievement.
  8. Rational decision making 
    1. an agreed goal
    2. a structured problem
    3. high level of certainty regarding the environment
  9. Rational choice theory:
    1. Uses mathematical modelling
    2. Assumes Individual as rational actors of decision making
  10. Factors responsible for bounded rationality leading to satisfying behaviors
    1. Dynamic rather than static nature of organizational objectives
    2. Imperfect information as well as limited capacity to process the available information
    3. Time and cost constraints
  11. Admin behavior
    1. rationale and normative approach
    2. logical positivist approach
  1. ‘Human Capital Theory’ states that It is the aggregate stock of competencies, knowledge, social and personal attributes
  2. Human capital theory gives emphasis on :
    1. Staff motivation
    2. Investment on education
    3. In-service education of the staff
  3. With reference to stock of employee skills, knowledge, and capabilities that may not show up in the balance sheet but have significant impact on firm’s performance
    1. Human capital
  1. The Major contributor to the Scientific Management Theory by taylor.
  2. Scientific management focuses on management of work and workers.
  3. The scientific theory as developed by Taylor in respect of administration can be described by a set of statements like the ones given below.
    1. A rule of thumb should be replaced by the organized knowledge. 
    2. The administrator should follow his/her discretion in running the organization. 
    3. Instead of individualism, cooperation should be the focus.
  4. Assumption of the foundation of “scientific management theory” by taylor
    1. Interested if employer and employee are the same.
    2. employer wants a low labor cost.
    3. management of incentives has great value.
  5. Taylor’s principle do not include the following
    1. Functional supervision
    2. Selection of personnel
    3. Scientific job analysis
    4. Division of work
  6. The term POSDCORB was coined by Luther Gulick.
  7. List-1 and List-2
    1. Henry fayol Espirit de corps
    2. Luther gullick – staff and time
    3. federick taylor – scientific selection of workers
  8. Luther gullick -POSDCORB
    1. Administration has to do with getting things done with the accomplishment of defined objectives
    2. Time is crucial factor in organisation
    3. Human being as a dynamic factor intrinsic in the study of public administration
    4. Bases of departmentalisation
  9. Statement I: Scientific management theory of F.W. Taylor gives a mechanical explanation of work and workers.
    1. Statement II: Human relations, leisure and emotion are given prime importance by F.W. Taylor to enhance productivity of an organization 
    2. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect.
      1. Since, two key aspects of human relationships approach are employee motivation and leadership style.
  10. The principles of scientific management are
    1. Harmony
    2. Maximum output
    3. science but not rule of thumb
  11. Leadership style and Features
    1. Participative – consultative to democratic
    2. Bureaucratic – rigid, impersonal, rule oriented
    3. Autocratic – Non-consultative orders
  12. Set-I (Leaders of Modern  Concepts of Educational Administration) Set II  (Specific Theory Contributed)
    1. Frederick Winslow Taylor – Scientific  management  movement
    2. Elton Mayo – Human relations movement
    3. Rennis Likert – Management  systems
    4. Douglas Mc Gregor – Theory X and Theory Y
  13. Behavioral school of management developed theories in the following chronological sequence
    1. Elton Mayo
    2. Abraham Maslow
    3. Douglas McGregor

  1. Charismatic leadership approach lies in charm and persuade ability.
  2. In psychodynamic approach to leadership different motivational drivers as basic principle is included.
  1. List I embodies situational leadership style and List II indicates the power resource which supports them.
    1. Directive style (HT/LR) – Coercive power – Directive – Leader provides specific guidance by establishing work schedules and rules
    2. Supportive style (HT/HR) – Reward power – Supportive – leader consults subordinates thereby permitting them to participate in decision making
    3. Participative style (LT/HR) – Information power – participative – leader establishes good relation with subordinates thereby permitting them to participate in decision making
    4. Delegating style (LT/LR) – Expert power – Achievement oriented – Leader set challenging goals and seeks improvement in performance
      1. HT = High Task HR = High Relationship LT = Low Task LR = Low Relationship
  2. In a school ‘participative leadership style’ is likely to prove most effective when the teachers or students are able but unwilling.
  1. Characteristics of Max weber’s ideal type bureaucracy
    1. Officials are organized in hierarchical order – delegated from superior to subordinates
    2. Legal authority – right to issue direction
  2. The characteristics of a bureaucratic administration in education
    1. Division of labor
    2. Specialization
    3. A clear hierarchy
    4. Set of rules or standard operating procedures
  1. List-1 (Approach) and list-2(feature)
    1. Bureaucratic – legal rational authority
    2. Behavioral – analysis of human behavior in administrative setting
    3. general system – administrative system as a sub system in the society
  2. Characteristics of bureaucratic theory
    1. Division of work
    2. Impersonality and
    3. career orientation
  3. The main limitation of Bureaucratic management is that Work procedure gets thwarted.
  4. Bureaucratic form of government fundamentally questioned for
    1. organisations are facing acute pressure to change and pursue innovation as a means of securing business growth.
  1. List- 1(Author) and list 2 (Books)
    1. Elton Mayo – Human problems of an industrial civilization
    2. Douglas McGregor – Human side of enterprise
    3. Chester bernard – functions of the executive
    4. Simon – new science of management decision
  2. The contributors to Human Relations Approach Mayo and Kurt Lewin
  3. List-1(Theorists) and list-2 behavioral school of management
    1. Mayo – effects of human motivation on productivity and output.
    2. Abraham Maslow – relates human motivation to a hierarchy of needs
    3. Douglas Mcgregor – emphasises human characteristics theory X and theory Y and the corresponding styles of leadership.
  4. Theory Y assumption
    1. relevant to line staff relationship
    2. people oriented approach 
    3. Seeks intrinsic motivation
  5. Systems theory of organisation given by Chester barnard
    1. A  group  of  different  units  forms  a complete unit which is known as a system and each small unit is called a sub-system.
  6. Human relation approach to administration
    1. Worker is not a rational man but a social man
    2. human and social factors are not related to growth and development of human resources
    3. work has to be considered as a group activity
    4. production norms are set by social norms
  7. If a person strongly feels that he has to achieve maximum by utilizing his potentials to the maximum extent, then according to Maslow, it is  Self-fulfillment needs
  8. The correct order of human needs as formulated in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    1. Physiological needs
    2. safety needs
    3. Love and belonging needs
    4. esteem needs
    5. self-actualisation needs
  1. Match – Commission an its founders in relation to its objectives
    1. UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49) – Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.
    2. SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION 1952 – Dr. A. Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar –  idea of diversification of secondary education
    3. INDIAN EDUCATION COMMISSION (1964-66) – Kothari Education Commission – In-service training – Common School System of secondary education
    4. National Policy of Education-1968 – to adopt the 10+2+3 pattern
    5. NPE 1990, – Acharya Ramamurti –  Review of NPE-1986 Programme of Action (POA)
    6. National Programme of Action of 1992 – Shri N. Janardhana Reddy
    7. National Knowledge Commission,2007 – greater coordination among various government departments.
    8. National Education Policy,2020 – School Quality Assessment and Accreditation System
  2. Justice Verma Commission was required exclusively to address Teacher Education in India mentioned thereby Improving quality of pre-service and in-service Teacher Education.
  3. In Planning In-service Teacher Education programs in India
    1. making in-service teaching-learning systems as an integral part of teacher preparation
    2. focusing on human resource development
    3. Emphasis on building commitment and confidence level of teachers
  1. Regarding the content and process of school education, NPE,86 and POA made the followings points
    1. Access to education of a comparable quality for all irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex.
    2. Overhauling of the system of teacher education and strengthening that of the technical and resource support structures, including the establishment of District Institutes of Education and Training.
    3. Decentralization of educational administration, creation of a spirit of autonomy for educational institutions with greater role assigned to the institutional heads and development of professionalism among teachers.
  2. The National Policy of Education (NPE) 1968 was at first introduced in and later modified in 1986 1992
    1. NPE (1968)- for Radical Restructuring
    2. NPE (1986)- for Special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity and in child-centered approach in primary education followed by
    3. Operation Blackboard – NPE (1992)- for ‘Common Minimum Programme’
  1. List-1 (Approach) and list-2(feature)
    1. Bureaucratic – legal rational authority
    2. Behavioural – analysis of human behavior in administrative setting
    3. general system – administrative system as a sub system in the society
  2. Sequence of decision making in the perspective of prosocial behavior
    1. Perceived need – Taking personal responsibility – Weighing the cost and benefits – deciding how to help – Help is given
  3. Below are given some general steps for undertaking cost benefit analysis :
    1. Specifying the programme/project clearly
    2. Describing quantitatively the inputs and outputs of the programme/project
    3. Estimating the social costs and benefits of the inputs and outputs of the programme/ projects
    4. Comparing the benefits and costs
  1. Assertion (A)  :  Managers differ across cultures in their interpersonal styles and skills.  
    1. Reason (R) : Personal values held by a manager shape his perception of a situation
    2. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  1. A: Leaders exert powerful effects on followers through the attribution followers make about them
    1. R: Leaders have self confidence and environmental sensitivity
    2. Both A and R true and correct explanation.
  2. The task management style in blake and moultons managerial grid theory
    1. Low concern for people and high concern for production
  3. As per the managerial grid given by blake and mouton, the leadership style focussing on low task and high concern for people is known as club country management
  4. Assertion (A) :Leadership is a process where people merely make an attribution about other individuals.
    1. Reason (R) : People regard leader as a change agent.
    2. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  5. From the list of the statements given below, identify the main characteristics which are related with leader-member exchange theory:
    1. Views leadership as a process.
    2. Focuses on the vertical dyadic relationship.
    3. Explains the effects of leadership on members, teams and organisation.
    4. Points out what strengthens and weakens the leadership dynamics.
  6. Fielder’s contingency theory deals with leader member relations.
  1. List-1 and 2
    1. Task Management – More focus on production but less on workers
    2. Team Management – More focus on production and workers
    3. Impoverished Management -Less focus on production and workers
    4. Country club management – Less focus on production but more on workers.
  2. Blake Mouton Managerial grid theories of leadership
    1. Set-I (Styles of leadership) –              Set-II (Characteristics)
      1. Impoverished leadership  –     Laissez-faire-minimal concern for both the workers and the task
      2. Country club leadership –   Focusses on creating safe, comfortable working environment, minimal conflict
      3. Task-oriented leadership – Autocratic-workers have to complete the task, nothing else
      4. Team leadership – Staff/workers closely involved in decision-making and feel valued
      5. Middle of the road leadership – Compromises made to achieve acceptable performance
  1. Critical Path Method (CPM) is used in Educational Administration for the management of  Predictable activities.
  2. In Critical path method(CPM) one arrow represents one activity and that activity cannot be preponed or postponed.
  3. In case of PERT(Programme Evaluation and Review Technique), the shortest time within which any activity can be completed is  Optimistic time.
  4. PERT and CPM
    1. PERT is probabilistic in nature and CPM is deterministic in nature
    2. PERT focuses more on time element and attaches lesser significance to cost. on the contrary CPM puts strong emphasis on Cost
    3. PERT is event oriented while CPM is activity oriented
    4. PERT is suitable of great value projects that are repetitive in nature while in CPM for new as well as old projects.
  5. The  reasons  of  negligible  number  of  studies  of cost-effectiveness  analysis  (CEA)  of projects in the field of Education
    1. Evaluator’s inadequate background in CEA
    2. Lack of requisite  exposure in CEA
    3. Lack of familiarity of  the decision-makers with CEA
  6. The statements clearly articulates the meaning of unit cost is
    1. Total expenditure divided by total number of students.

Decentralisation in educational administration and management:

  1. Education under India’s Constitution is a concurrent subject in which both the State and the Centre can legislate
  2. Decentralisation means transfer of power, responsibility and authority to the people at large. It is diffusion of power into the hands of people
  3. Article 40 of the constitution of India reads: “The states are directed to take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.”
  4. Article 243 G provides that the states and union territories may, by law, endow the Panchayats with powers and authority and enable them to function as institutions of self-government and to prepare plans for economic development and social justice.
  5. The entire administration for the purpose of development follows the pattern of three tier system, Match
    1. zilla parishad the district level.
    2. the panchayat samiti -at the block level and
    3. village panchayat – at the village level
  6. Age old rivalries, favouritism, the rigid hierarchical behaviour of village community and caste localities may tend to render decentralisation as sense formalism.
  7. Latest trend focuses to make the system a six tier one.
  8. Decentralisation is effecting necessary sociological, political and economic changes in the rural sector.

Local Management and Governance in Education:

  1.  11th and 12th schedule of Indian constitution is related to Panchayat and Nagarpalikas.
  2. The local self-government solves the problems of rural people at  Grass Root level.
  3. Decentralization involves political values like
    1. Democracy Accountability Transparency
  4. Political decentralization aims to give citizens or their elected representatives more power in Public decision-making.
  5. Political decentralization is often associated with pluralistic politics and representative government, but it can also support democratization by giving citizens, or their representatives, more influence in the formulation and implementation of policies.
  6. In decentralisation the subordinates get a chance to decide and act independently which develops skills and capabilities.
  7. Role of decentralized and participatory school governance is
    1.  Maximizing limited resources, developing relevant curriculum and learning materials and realizing democracy.
    2.  Identifying and addressing problems, creating and nourishing community-school partnerships, ensuring sustainability, improving home environment and increasing accountability.
  8. The core features of governance are
    1. transparency
    1. rule of law and
    1. ethics and integrity
  9. A: Governance is not simply about elected representatives making values, policy and tool choice for implementation
    1. R: Governance also involves practices and process for people to participate in the work of government
    1. Both A and R and true and is the correct explanation
  10. Democratic management of educational institutions will
    1.  Promote quality and equal access
  11. Principle of democratic value – Consultation with and the agreement of workers in formulation and implementation of welfare services.
  12. Democratic style of leadership
    1. subordinates are allowed to participate in decision making and decisions are taken on the basis of group decision
  1. The subject of Education was put on the Concurrent list in the year  1976.
  2. 73rd and 74th amendments are associated with Panchayati Raj Institutions in India
  3.  Article 350A of Indian Constitution instruction in mother tongue has been recommended.
  4. The basic unit of Panchayti Raj System in India is Gram Sabha.
  5. 15 members constituted Panchayat Standing Committee on Education (PCE)
  6. The main function of Panchayat Samiti in Educational Management is Management of Adult Education.
  7. The main tier of Panchayati Raj Structure that supervises all the educational programmes in the district up till secondary level  Zila Parishad.

Central and state administration:

  1. Full form of DIET is District Institute of Education and Training
  2. DIET is the District level support system for qualitative improvement of education.
  3. BRCC maintains relationship with a group of schools
  4. CRP maintains relationship with a group of schools
  5. The Cluster Resource Center Coordinator will be accountable to  Headmasters
  6. BRC coordinators also collect material from  District Project Office for distribution among the teachers.
  7. the main reasons for the weakest link between BRC/ CRC and VECs
    1. Infrequent visits 
    2. Physical distancing of BRCs/CRCs personnel with community members.
  8. the main purpose of BRCs
    1. BRC seeks to be a resource centre for giving all kinds of onsite academic support to the teachers of elementary level. 
    2. Block Office supervises the Cluster Resource center
  9. Education Department supervises the  BRCs which provides information regarding quality improvement in schools.
  10. The academic segments of state educational administration is divided in urban areas into 3 segments.
  11. Block Resource Centres and Cluster Resource Centres perform important academic functions
    1. Development of the centre as a rich academic resource
    2. Development of strong human resource pools
  12. At  District  level DIETs are operational in the country
    1. Every district is divided into two or three blocks.
  13. The academic coordinator/ facilitator at Block level for in-service teacher training  BRC Coordinator
  14. Educational Administration is an activity of
    1. Centre
    2. State
  15. The nature of Educational Administration includes
    1. processes or aspects which constitute administration
    2. non-profit task
    3. primarily a social enterprise
  16. The Chief Education Officer acts as an  Educational Advisor to the Municipal Commissioner.
  17. The Head of the Steering Groups will together constitute the District Level Committee (District Task Force) which shall work as an organic team for furthering the project of SSA at the district level.
  18. Administrative Functions of the District Education Officers are
    1.  To disseminate information on new policies and government initiatives
    2.  To disburse salaries of teachers and headmasters
    3.  To inspect and administer all matters related to teacher employment
  19. The Department of Education of a State Government invites proposals from DIETs for inclusion of items in the primary school curriculum which in turn involves BRCs and CRCs. This approach will be called: Administrative model
  20. State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT)  is the apex body for controlling, guiding and monitoring the activities and programmes of DIETS and other centrally sponsored schemes for teacher education.
  21. Broad functions of the  SCERT are Development of curriculum, textbooks, training, research and innovation.
  22. The function of State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT)
    1. To plan and organize pre-service and in-service training
    2. Plan and implement teacher education programmes.
    3. Development of training materials, teaching aids and curriculum for Teacher Educators
  23. SCERT and NCTE organizations are mainly associated with policymaking and quality control aspects of teacher education.
  1. Village Education Committee (VEC) appears to be  the weakest link in the organizational structure of SSA.
  2. SSA includes imparting education among All children in primary education from 6 to 14 yrs of age.
  3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was launched in 2001
  4. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage Programme under the SSA is for mainstreaming of Children with special needs in regular schools.
  5. Rehabilitation council of India comes under the ministry of Social justice and empowerment.
  6. CWSN provides the students with free Text books, Uniforms, Mid-day meal.
  7. RUSA aims at Providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational institutions.
  1. NUEPA got the status of Deemed University in the year 2006
  2. NCERT was established in the year  1961
  3. DIET is the District level support system for qualitative improvement of education.
  4. At the district level  DIET’s has been entrusted with the responsibility of in-service teacher-education for primary and elementary schools.
  5. CRP maintains relationship with a group of schools
  6. The Cluster Resource Center Coordinator will be accountable to Headmasters
  7. Monthly meetings at cluster level are held and periodic visits to schools are made by CRCCs.
  8. BRC coordinators also collect material from  District Project Office for distribution among the teachers.
  9. the main reasons for the weakest link between BRC/ CRC and VECs
    1. Infrequent visits 
    2. Physical distancing of BRCs/CRCs personnel with community members
  10. The main purpose of BRCs
    1. BRC seeks to be a resource centre for giving all kinds of onsite academic support to the teachers of elementary level. 
    2. Block Office supervises the Cluster Resource center
  11. BRCs seek to be resource centres for giving all kinds of onsite academic support to the teachers of  Elementary level
  12. Education Department supervises the  BRCs which provides information regarding quality improvement in schools.
  13. Village Education Committees are responsible for the  Enrolment, and retention of children in schools.
  14. Within a state there is generally a four-tier structure of administration– Division, District,block and village.

  1. Sir Charles Wood’s Dispatch of 1854, famously known as the “Magna Carta of English Education in India”
  2. Article 15 -is regarding education of women – Abolition of discrimination on the basis of caste, race and religion.
  3. The right to free and compulsory education at primary education level is ensured by the constitution of India through Article 21 A, 2002
  4. The Right to Education Bill was passed by Government in  2009 and the act comes under article 21 A.
  5. Article 29 is related to Protection of Interest of Minorities to ensure equality of opportunities in educational institutions.
  6. Provision of free and compulsory education of good quality for all children upto the age of 14 years is given in Article 45.
  7. Article 46 is related to  Educational provisions of disadvantaged section.
  8. Article 51A state that every citizen of India who is parent or guardian has duty to send their ward to school.
  9. 42nd amendment placed education in Concurrent list.
  10. Entry 25 of concurrent list is related to  Technical, Medical and University education
  11. Entry 66 contains coordination and determination of standards in institutions for higher education or research and scientific and technical institution.
  12. Religious and secular education are other important areas of consideration which have been focused under articles 15, 25, 28, 29 & 30.
Credit: Eduncle
Eduncle reference
  1. The Indian government is Quasi federal in nature.
  2. In the tertiary sector, the  University Grants Commission maintain standards of higher Education
  3. The other apex institution concerned with educational planning and administration is which is not a constituent of the NCERT is NUEPA.
  4. The BEOs are working for the administration of secondary level education
  5. the DEOs are accountable for their routine work Circle Education Officer
  6. Minister of Education is the highest authority of education at state level who formulate the policies with the help of cabinet
  7. NCTE Act of Teacher Education” was passed in 1993 came into force on 1st July 1995.
  8. The main purposes of forming NCTE
    1.  To plan and coordinate development of the teacher education system throughout the country
    2.  To regulate and maintain the norms and standards in the teacher education system
    3.  To get involved in the decision making for school activities.
  9. The three components of teacher education suggested by NCTE are competency, commitment, and attitude.
  10. To provide extensions services department to teacher education colleges is one of the functions of NCTE.
  11. Highest level officer of education at district level is DEO.
  1. SSA is one of India’s major flagship programmes for universalisation of primary education.
  2. SSA includes imparting education among children between 6 to 14 years.
  3. Mid-day meal programme at schools provides meal to students improving nutritional levels among primary school children.
  4. RMSA launched in march 2009 with the objective of making secondary education of good quality available, accessible and affordable to all young persons in the age group 14-15 years.
  5. The Mahila Samakhya (MS) programme was started in  1989 for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas specially from the socially and economically marginalized groups.
  6. The main goal of Saakshar Bharat Mission(SBM) is to Reduce gender gap in literacy rate to 10 percentage points.
  7. Department of School Education and Literacy is operating its educational administration system with Four of the major flagship programmes of the Government of India are:
    1. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA),2000-2001
    2. The National Programme of Mid-Day Meal (MDM) in Schools, 1995
    3. The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA),2009
    4. The Saakshar Bharat Programme,2009
  1. The overall policy of SBM aimed at empowerment of women and in recognition of the fact that female literacy is a force multiplier in all actions for social development.
  2. Kothari Commission has emphasized the importance of affiliated colleges.
  3. Chronologically arrange the establishment of the commissions/committees
    1. Kothari Education commission
    2. National Knowledge commission
    3. Yashpal committee
    4. Justice Verma committee.
  4. Set-I (Commissions) – Set-II (Recommendations)
    1. Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) – Establishment of Extension Services Department  
    2. Education Commission (1964-66) = Establishment of ‘School Complex’ with a nodal school  
    3. National Commission of Teacher (1980) = Provision of in-service training of specified short period and its linkage with career promotion.
    4. High-powered Commission on Teacher Education (2012) = Improving quality of pre service and in-service Teacher Education

Regulatory Bodies Guiding the Education System:

  1. The process by which the education system holds itself responsible for delivering the appropriate services and for meeting the goals is called Accountability.
  2. The bodies involved in regulating and maintaining standards at the Central level are namely
    1. NCERT 
    2. UGC
  3. the statutory function of the UGC is to determine and maintain the standards of teaching and research in universities.
  4. The Academic and Administrative Reforms Committee of U.G.C. has given recommendations in respect of curriculum development suggesting some needed  steps
    1. Updation/revision  of  curriculum  to  a  limited  extent every  year  and  substantially  every three years
    2. Updation  of  curriculum  to  be  carried  out  in  terms  of  current  knowledge,  national  and international developments
    3. Curricular transactions and synergies of all faculty members
  1. Planning Commission Report (12th Plan) gave regulation to extend Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) scheme to government aided schools.
  2. Allocation of 6 per cent of GDP for education is recommended by CABE.
  3. Curriculum gets high weightage in NAAC rating of educational institution
  4. The following have been identified as performance indicators for assessment and accreditation of institution by NAAC
    1. Curricular aspects,
    2. Institutional values and best practices
    3. Research, Innovation and Extension
    4. Governance, Leadership and Management
  5. The AICTE regulates foreign institutions, which provide technical education either directly or through collaboration with Indian partners.
  6. List I presents names of organizations and List II is about their functions.
    1. UGC – To maintain and regulate standards of higher education
    2. NAAC – To give accreditation to institutions of higher learning
    3. CABE – To formulate new policy and programmes of education
    4. NCTE – To regulate standards of the institutions of teacher education
  7. The Academic and Administrative Reforms Committee of U.G.C. has given recommendations in respect of curriculum development 
    1. Updation/revision  of  curriculum  to  a  limited  extent every  year  and  substantially  every three years
    2. Updation  of  curriculum  to  be  carried  out  in  terms  of  current  knowledge,  national  and international development.
    3. Curricular transactions and synergies of all faculty members.
  8. For  curriculum  development  at  the  college/university  level  the  following  reflects  the intentions of UGC
    1. Curriculum should be changed every year, if not possible, every three years
    2. Choice based  credit system  should from  part  of university  curriculum
    3. Semesterized curriculum provides more of meaningful  engagement of the learner.
  1. Establishment of DIETs was a result of one of the recommendations of
    1. National Policy of Education 1986
  2. The recommendation to reduce the burden of school bags was given by Yashpal Committee.

Inclusive education:

  1. National Policy of Education (1986) mentioned inclusive education as “to integrate the handicapped with general community at all levels as equal partners. to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence.
  2. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in the NPE, 1986 by recognizing the wholistic nature of child development and giving high priority through Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS).
  3. DPEP (District Primary Education Project (DPEP)) programme works in convergence with IEDC (Integrated Education for Disabled Children.
  4. For-education of CWSN (Children With Special Needs), the concept of Inclusive Education as laid down in SSA was based upon Multi-Option Model.
  5. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage Programme under the SSA is for mainstreaming of Children with special needs in regular schools.
  6. Plan of Action (POA) – 1992 a child with disability who can be educated in a general school should be educated in a general school only and not in a special school.
  7. In 1992, Parliament enacted the RCI Act, subsequently amended in 2000, to establish a statutory mechanism for monitoring and standardizing the training of special educators and other rehabilitation professionals.
  8. For inclusive education to be successful the following are needed 
    1. Availability of trained teachers in schools
    2. Availability of infrastructure in schools
    3. Appointment of trained Counsellors in schools
  9. Elements of Inclusive education 
    1. Regard for diversity  
    2. Zero rejection 
    3. Collaboration
  10. In an inclusive classroom with diverse learners, cooperative learning and peer-tutoring should be actively promoted to facilitate peer-acceptance
  11. Inclusive education is based on the principle of – Equality and equal opportunities
  12. Various objectives of the Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) As mandated by an Act of Parliament
    1. To regulate and monitor services given to persons with disability
    2. To standardise syllabi
    3. To maintain a Central Rehabilitation Register of all qualified professionals and personnel.
  13. The following conditions of disabilities have been identified according to the ‘Persons with Disability Act 1995,
    1. Blindness and Low Vision
    2. Hearing Impairment
    3. Mental Retardation and Mental IlIness
  1. According to NCF (2005), A capacity to learn and willingness to unlearn and relearn as means of responding to new situations in a flexible and creative manner.
    1. A teacher’s important role in an inclusive classroom is to ensure that every child gets an opportunity to realise her potential
  2. 2006 – National Policy for Persons with Disabilities (2006)
  1. Article 21A of the constitution was amended by the Government of India. The Right to Education Act, 2009 passed by the Indian Parliament mandates free and compulsory education of all children of age 6-14 years.
  2. According to the Right to Education Act, 2009, children with special needs should study in inclusive education setups with provisions to cater to their individual needs.
  3. The philosophical perspectives needs to be followed to deal with children with special needs that they have a right to inclusive education and study in regular schools
  4. The rationale behind inclusive education is that society is heterogenous and schools needs to be inclusive to cater to heterogenous society
  5. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) has been launched from the year 2009-10 subsumes IEDC(Integrated Education of disabled children) under Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) from 2013.
  6. According to the Right to Education Act, 2009, children with special needs should study in inclusive education setups with provisions to cater to their individual needs.
  1. SSA ensures every child with special needs to be called called disability inclusive programme by adopting “Zero rejection” policy, which states no child is left out of the education system.
  2. In SSA that each district has flexibility to plan for educating CWSN, depending on the number of children identified and the resources available to effectively implement the inclusive education.
  3. Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage Programme under the SSA is for mainstreaming of Children with special needs in regular schools.
  1. United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)
    1. Ensure full and equal enjoyment of human rights
    2. Ensure fundamental freedom to all persons with disabilities
    3. Promote respect for inherent dignity of such children


  1. Assertion (A): Planning for instructions refers to the decisions made about organizing, implementing and evaluating instruction.
    1. Reason (R) : Planning gives a sense of direction and through this a feel of confidence to the teacher. It helps the teacher to become a reflective decision maker about instruction.
    2. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  2. A school principal plans the targets of activities and programmes to be undertaken in next five years. This is an example of Perspective planning.
  1. The objective of policy evaluation
    1. Assessing policy efficiency
    1. Understanding policy impact
  2. Public policy cycle in a sequential form
    1. Agenda setting
    1. Formulation
    1. legitimization
    1. Implementation
  3. Steps(Sequence) in planning
    1. Defining objectives for policies
    2. Programming
    3. Forecasting needs and supplies
    4. Implementation
    5. Control and evaluation
  4. Steps of institutional planning
    1. analysis of the present situation
    2. Survey of the existing resources
    3. preparation for the improvement of the programme
    4. Implementation
    5. Evaluation
  5. A: Public policy is a purposive course of action that an individual or group consistently follows in dealing with a problem
    1. R: Policy is an instrument through which society regulates and attempts to channelise human behaviour in acceptable directions
    2. Both A and R true but not the correct explanation.
  6. the steps involved in policy formulation
    1. Analysis of the existing situation
    2. Generation of policy options
    3. Evaluation of policy options
    4. Making a policy decision
    5. Planning of policy implementation
    6. Policy impact assessment
    7. Subsequent policy options
  7. The essential components of a budget are
    1. Income and Expenditure.
  8. Budgeting is closely related to planning in an organisation. Correct sequence of 4 stages
    1. setting the objectives,
    2. specifying the goals,
    3. laying down the strategies
    4. preparation of budget
  9. While preparing a budget mandatory points are
    1. Revenue
    2. Objectives of the institution
    3. Expenditure
  10. Budget system is a method for determining compensation for the international staff, where it takes all costs incurred by the employee in home and host country.
  11. Assertion (A) :A budget is a balanced estimate of expenditures and receipts of a given period of time.
    1. Reason  (R)  : In  the  hands  of  an  educational  administrator,  the  budget  is  a  record  of  past performance, a method of current control and a projection of future plans.
      1. (1) Both (A) and (R)  are true and (R) is the  correct explanation of (A)
  12. Disadvantages of Bottom up approach of Budgeting are that the budget 
    1. may not be synchronous with the overall objectives of the organization.
    2. preparation may be slow.

  1. Human resource planning
    1. the process of analyzing and identifying the need and availability of human resources so that organisation meet its objectives
  2. 4 indicators of Human resource development (HRD)
    1. HRD system
    2. HRD competence
    3. Business linkage
    4. HRD culture
  3. HR accounting techniques include
    1. historical cost method
    2. Replacement cost method
    3. Opportunity cost method
      1. But not quality cost method
  4. The constituents of Human Resource Management?           
    1. Leadership            2.Autonomy            3.Skills           4.Creativity
  1. The three step model of change was developed by kurt lewin.
  2. A: If complete organisational system must operate in a constantly changing environment, they must modify the structures at corresponding pace
    1. R: The difficulties organisational system faces is that they are often outpaced by new organisational system that do not carry the same burden of outmoded knowledge
    1. Both A and R correct but not the correct explanation.
  3. Areas relating organisational change
    1. Technology, quality and marketing
  4. Organisation encounter different forces of change which may be external or internal. It includes
    1. Technological advancement
    2. Workforce diversity
    3. competition in the market
  5. A specific category of information system serving middle managers by providing reports on organization current performance.
    1. MIS – Management Information system
  6. Assertion (A) : You can find people with fixation, obsessions and compulsions who put work ahead of health and family but this is not normal; work after all is only work.
    1. Reason (R) : The key to success as a manager is intervening effectively, doing the right things at the right time
    2. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
  1. SOBC model is used to identify the major variables in organisational behavior and to show how they relate to another.
    1. Stimulus, Organism, Behaviour and Consequence
  2. Organisational development is meant for
    1. bringing about change with the help of knowledge of behavioral science.
  3. Components of a model
    1. Strategies – practices – outcomes – behavior – performance
  4. The strategic intent brings strong organisational commitment relating to organisational change through innovativeness in learning thereby revitalising the competitive position of a company.
  5. the correct sequence in formulation of behavioural objectives
    1. Behaviour to be specified, conditions in which behaviour will occur and criteria of acceptability of the behaviour.
  1. There is no best way to handle any of the management problems and there is no best organizational structure to suit all situations contingency approach.
  2. Ethical codes are statement of norms and beliefs of an organization which are proposed, discussed and defined by the management of the firm then published and distributed.
  3. Acceptable difference between transactional and transformational leadership styles for strengthening the school system
    1. In transactional leadership style, the leader goes with his/her own vision while in transformational style, the leader creates vision in others.
    1. Transactional style leader monitors while in the transformational style leader inspires.
    1. In transactional leadership style, the leaders personal traits are important while in transformational style, inter relationships are important.
    1. The transactional leader monitors while the transformational leader guides.
  4. Transactional analysis is associated with Interpersonal conflict and helps in
    1. Problem solving
    2. Improved communication within the organisation
    3. Better Leadership
  5. Grapevine is often referred as Informal communication.
  6. The  characteristics of transactional leadership style
    1. Role and goal clarity
    2. Emphasis on competency building
    3. Monitoring people
  7. A leader who guides or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements is transactional leader.
  8. If the leadership style allows substantial participation by the members of the group in the management and decision-making process, subordinates are frequently consulted by the manager on wide ranging problems and are allowed sufficient freedom to communicate with the leader and also with their fellow subordinates-  Democratic style of leadership.
  9. Assertion (A) :Effective leader motivates people
    1. Reason (R) :People may  be self motivated to  give their best
      1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
  10. Set of traits which is most appropriate for effective leadership are
    1. Achievement drive, self-confidence and charisma
  1. A: A person who makes things happen believes in his objectives and he will see to it that they are met regardless of the difficulties
    1. R: Such a person is fully alerted to competition and is determined to keep so far infront of the competition that cannot overtake him.
      1. Both A and R true and is the correct explanation
  1. Transactional analysis is due to Interpersonal conflict.
  1. The needed actions for a change process of an organization.
    1. The organization must go through an “Unfreezing”
    2. Anxiety one — fear of change should be decreased
    3. Anxiety two — fear of not changing must be increased
  2. A: Administrative heritage is a barrier to the process of transformation of a domestic company into a MNC.
    1. R: Proper understanding of the administrative heritage of a company may be the key to initiate the transformation process
    2. Both A and R true and R is the correct explanation.
  1. List-1 and 2
    1. HR approach – people must be developed to full potential
    2. Productivity approach – Managers efficiency depends on optimum utilization of resources
    3. Contingency approach – belief that there is no one best option available for an organisation
  2. a characteristic of a profession 
    1. Membership of a professional organisation
    2. Long duration of pre-service training
    3. Working with service motive
  3. No professional organisation which controls teacher’s behavior, so teaching is not a profession.
  4. A well defined management should give stress on Organisational aspects for proper development.
  5. Developing brand and enhancing marketing is emphasized by Signal Theory.
  6. Total quality Management (TQM)  Focuses on intense and regular scrutiny of every step in the work process in the organisation.
  7. For application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in teacher education, the following measures will be considered helpful
    1. ‘Can do’, Will do’ analysis for specified groups of teacher education
    2. SWOC analysis by teacher educators
    3. Action research projects to improve school practices
  1. In terms of Shewhart cycle
    1. List-I (Stages of cycle) List-II (Related actions)
      1. Plan – Chalk out a change or test
      2. Do – Carry out the change or test
      3. Check – Observe the effects of the change or test
      4. Act – Improve change or test with new knowledge
  1. TQM(Total quality Management) is best explained with the help of deming’s triangle.
  2. In a TQM, all members of an organisation participate in improving Process, product, services and culture.
  3. Edward Deming proposed quality assurance
    1. Adopt new philosophy
    2. Cease dependence on inspection
    3. Institute training on the job
    4. Drive out fear
  4. Deming’s “system of profound knowledge” consisting of four interrelated theories
    1. Optimization, variation, knowledge and psychology
  5. The acronym DMAIC of Six Sigma method stands for
    1. Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control
  6. The book ‘fortune at the bottom of the pyramid’ is written by the management theorist C.K.Pralhad.
  7. Poka Yoke has proposed that “organization shall eliminate the need of quality control after the process”
  8. Control method of poka yoke
    1. This device is a regulatory in working which are installed on process equipment and/or work pieces.
  9. Poka Yoke is a method to prevent and resolve defects during the production process, eliminating the need for quality control after the process.
  10. Methodology of poka yoke are given below arrange in order
    1. Identify Problem
    2. Observation at workstation
    3. Brainstorming for idea
    4. Select best idea
    5. Implementation Plan
    6. Implement
    7. Monitor and sign off
  11. Just in time model was successfully implemented by Toyota company for effective delivery of products and services by learning from previous cases of delay.
  12. The main objectives of Quality Council of India (QCI)
    1. To lead nationwide quality movement through national quality campaign
    2. To develop capacities for implementing and institutionalizing continuous quality improvement
    3. To develop, establish and operate national accreditation programmes
    4. To build capacities in the areas of regulation, conformity assessment and accreditation
  13. Sustainable development goals(SDG’s) has promised to ensure healthy lives and well being for all at all ages.